when to use a comma before and
A writer may choose to place a comma before and(or any conjunction) when the conjunction launches such a phrase: 1. Let’s take a closer look at each of these rules. Comma Before And That Joins Two Independent Clauses The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. 2. Comma Before 'And' & 'So' Although commas are used in many different ways, in this video we're only going to address the use of commas with the conjunctions 'and' and 'so.' In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. Just be consistent. There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. But the second clause, watched the dog chase it, can’t stand by itself as a complete sentence. Insert a comma before the coordinating conjunction. When “thus” is used to mean “consequently” or “as a result of” and introduces a gerund or a gerund phrase, a comma is necessary before it but not after it. Tone vs. When a comma is used before the conjunction in a list, it is known as an Oxford Comma. A comma is used to add clarity. Commas Before And are used primarily in two specific situations: An independent clause is a phrase that expresses a complete thought. If you’ve ever heard someone arguing about serial commas or Oxford commas, this is what they were talking about. That comma is optional. Note that some style guides would not add the comma after the word “eggs”. Although it’s not technically incorrect to include it, you risk having a choppy sentence. Despite popular belief, the rules for using commas in a sentence don’t depend on what comes before or after a specific word.. Another common misconception is that you need a comma any time you would pause when speaking. You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. Commas are almost always used to separate items in a list or series that contains three or more things. The word can be used as part of a nonrestrictive phrase, restrictive phrase, or prepositional phrase, and it can be used as an interrogative word. if you remove the "and" you will be left with two complete sentences), or if you're using it as an Oxford comma. We could ar… In some circumstances, you may use a comma before a conjunction such as "and" when it starts a dependent clause. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list. When a comma is used immediately before an and in a list, it’s called an Oxford comma. Don’t switch back and forth in the same document between using the Oxford comma and not using it. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. If you follow the AP style, you would probably delete the comma it out of economy. They’re also important. Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. There are three primary uses of conjunctions: When a coordinating conjunction is used to connect two independent clauses, a comma is always used. It’s cold outside, and I can’t find my coat. Commas can be used to set apart phrases that interrupt the flow of a sentence. Flawless spelling & grammar are just the beginning. Well, appropriately enough, the Oxford Dictionary has the answer. The Serial Comma Helps to Prevent a Misreading Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. When you have two independent clauses joined together by and, most style guides say that it’s OK to leave the comma out as long as the two independent clauses are very short and closely connected. Here’s an example: It’s not wrong to add a comma before and in the sentence above, but doing so might make the sentence a little choppy. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … Sam tossed the ball and watched the dog chase it. Consider this sentence, for example: The argument of economy raises questions of confusing the reader with unnecessary punctuation. In other words, if each part of the sentence could stand alone as a sentence, then place a semicolon at the end of the first independent clause, follow that with “therefore,” and then place a comma … This is true for proper names, ordinary nouns, verbs, or anything else. The comma here improves legibility and is a better representation of spoken language (there is usually a pause before “whereas”). When directly addressing a person, use a comma to set off their name, nickname, title, or term of endearment. Commas Before and in a Series. It’s typically needed when the conjunction and is joining two independent clauses. Mood: How to Use Tone and Mood in Your Writing, 5 Writing "Rules" That Are Really Guidelines, Beware of These Common Consistency Issues in Writing, There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma. Therefore, we need a comma before and. Either you do, or you don’t, right? It’s often used to indicate a pause in a sentence or to separate items in a list. However, this is quite an outdated practice, but you can use it if you think it makes … They may be removed from a sentence without altering its meaning. Sam, and Sarah take excellent care of their pets. The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. Commas are also used to separate independent clauses (phrases that can stand on their own) when a conjunction (like and) is used, as in the compound sentence: Mark went to the store, and … Sarah told him again, and really meant it this time, to turn off the television. A sentence can contain two independent clauses if they’re linked by a conjunction such as and, or, and but. When we use and to join two sentences that relate to each other – or independent clauses, it requires a comma before … The comma before … , your friends, and Sarah take excellent care of their pets questions confusing. A complete thought is D. commas should be used to separate items a. Conjunction such as by the way, after all, and when a comma … Do not a... By removing any possible ambiguity or confusion you want to learn about other ways use. It for clarity can make using this misunderstood punctuation mark a breeze more.. An example: I would like to order a salad, a poor! 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